In addition, many adjectives are made from the past participle and so end in -ed. For example:
- I like painted furniture.
The question is: How do we pronounce the -ed?
|If the base verb ends in one of thesesounds:||example base verb*:||example
|voiced||all other sounds,
* note that it is the sound that is important, not the letter or spelling. For example, “fax” ends in the letter “x” but the sound /s/; “like” ends in the letter “e” but the sound /k/.
The following -ed words used as adjectives are pronounced with /Id/:
So we say:
- an aged man /Id/
- a blessed nuisance /Id/
- a dogged persistence /Id/
- a learned professor – the professor, who was truly learned /Id/
- a wretched beggar – the beggar was wretched /Id/
But when used as real verbs (past simple and past participle), the normal rules apply and we say:
- he aged quickly /d/
- he blessed me /t/
- they dogged him /d/
- he has learned well /d/ or /t/